Tuesday, September 8, 2009


Do you agree that drug testing should be done as a requirement for admission to schools? Why and why not?"

I am a graduating student of a well known school in Pampanga after which, will be pursuing my studies in medicine. I have been living in a clean environment having no records of any so called drugs that give impurities into my body and mind. What if suddenly I am approached to do drug testing, what would be the reason for me to agree or not to agree? Have they violated my rights as a student and my ego?

Serious issues come into question when someone is forced to give up urine samples. One of the main issues is the fact that most people won't be found containing drugs. While hundreds of students' rights were violated, excessive amounts of money will be spent. Is the government ready to compensate all the needs and expenses of all the schools in the Philippines? Money is a large reason to do away with drug testing, but more importantly is the intrusion on the rights of students. If there are no indications of a student doing drugs, then where do schools get probable cause to search students' inner possessions?
How then that we have always thought that the right against self incrimination and the right to privacy are our inviolable rights as citizens of this country?

With the status quo, I don’t agree with the drug testing as a requirement for admission to school. However, should be voluntary and with consent of the parents. We are all aware that the circulation of these prohibited drugs has now reached campuses, clubs, cities, and every corner of the streets but that should not be the case otherwise. This is a big issue that needs careful studies on how to prevent the widespread of these illegal substances and not just put on students wanting to fulfill their school life.

Our problem with deliberate reactions of this nature is that in the end, it achieves nothing – it will not prove to be preventive, deterrent, nor reductive. At the very least, what existing surveys would validate that students’ substance use has already surfaced as the number 1 concern, whilst the use of drugs can be prevented by catching the big fish -- the drug lords and the syndicates, not the innocent students.

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  • disappearance of WBC's in vaginal smear of the rats
  • presence of cornified cells


  • H-mole
  • ovarian cancer
  • overproduction of hormones by the adrenal glands

Answer to the Case Analysis:


Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Quiz in Progesterone Testing


1-3 What are the three ovarian hormones?


4-5 Give the reagents used in Kober's test.


6-7 Give the two positive reaction in Allen Doisy Test.
8-10 Give conditions wherein progesterone levels may be elevated

Case analysis:

Linda a 35 yr/old woman is experiencing severe nausea,vomiting, vaginal bleeding and very high blood pressure. Her pregnancy test is positive, but no fetal heartbeat and no fetal movement are detected, and her uterus is much more larger than expected.
Her laboratory tests shows the following:

Progesterone: 15 ng/ml
hCG: 10 mIU/ml

What's the possible cause of Linda's condition?

NOrmal values:
hCG:Non-pregnant females: <5.0>

Monday, August 17, 2009

Progesterone Screening Tests

Ovarian Hormones

  1. estrogen
  2. estriol
  3. estradiol
  • Progesterone - A woman's progesterone levels are very high during pregnancy, along with estrogens, especially estriol.
  • Normal values of progesterone:
    During a normal menstrual cycle
    8 - 10 ng/ml
    During menopause (high levels)
    16 ng/ml

Visit this site to clarify confusions with estrogen and progesterone :


Screening Tests

Kober's Test

A modification of this test is known as Bachmann-Pettit test. Kober - for naturally occurring estrogens, based upon the production of a pink color (absorption maximum: 520 mmu) when an estrogen is heated in a mixture of phenol and sulfuric acid.

Kurzkor Ratner Test
Specimen:Urine (first morning urine)

  • ethyl acetate is the reagent that is used to extract the urine and after the purification, the extract is subjected to bioassay like in the Allen Doisy test.

Allen Doisy Test

  • Estrogenic Activity Test
  • the hormone to be tested is repeatedly injected to rats/mice.
  • (+) positive reaction is the dis appearance of WBC's in vaginal smear of the rats and the presence of cornified cells.

Precautions before taking the test:

  • note the last day of menstruation
  • Avoid taking of medications containing the hormone estrogen before taking the test(contraceptives)
  • Avoid strenuous activities
  • Progesterone and estrogen levels may fluctuate during the day

Increased Levels:

  • pregnancy
  • multiple pregnancy
  • H Mole
  • Cancer of the ovaries or adrenala glands
  • overproduction of hormones by the adrenal glands

Decreased Levels:

  • miscarriage
  • ovulation problems

References: Clinical Chemistry Principples,Procedures,Correlations (5th Edition) Michael Bishop,Edward Fody. Larry Schoeff


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Tuesday, July 28, 2009

My Top 10 Votes for Influential Blogs

My Top 10 Influential Blogger

The following bloggers that i voted possess the true meaning of a writer, "It is by using his powerful thoughts and artistic writing medium in invading his reader's mind".

The following are my Top 10 Emerging Influential Blogs of 2009:

1. Roy The Struggling Blogger

Concern for the country and the people around him makes his blog unique. His interest and devotion in making bridges to different nations captures his blog. He aims to have a better communication to different people with different cultures making them as one.

2. Doctor Z of Zorlone

The artistic way of describing everyday's human experiences dominate his writings. His way of capturing the miracles that we are experiencing in our everyday life makes his blog good to read.

3. Jan Geronimo of WritingToExhale

Free conversational writing outstand his work. The way of sharing himself to his readers makes it a powerful blog.

4. Angel Cuala of Father Blogger dot com

The art of being a good father occupies his page. Not just describing his reponsibilities as a father but also making his readers realize the big role of a father in moulding extraordinary children.

5. Irene of LifeLots

Life's sweets and bitterness fills up this page. Her creative mind empowers her writing to reach her reader's depthness. Her way of describing LIFE itself captures me---THE WHOLE ME.

6. Luke of A Walk In The Dark

The rules in blogging and seize of possession in his own writing dwells his page. Security and privacy in networking business is his protest.

7. Holly Jahangiri of It’s all a matter of Perspective: Mine
8. Bingkee of I Love/Hate America
9. Kelvin Servigon of Kelvinonian Ideas 2.0

Photographs and modern things contains this page. He uses his blog as a medium of sharing knowledge in modern things.

10. Dee of Tales From The Mom Side

Art of womanhood dwells her page. Her writings inspires women to seek for their importance in this society.

This writing project will not be possible without the support of sponsors such as Absolute Traders, My Brute Cheats, Business Summaries, Fitness Advantage Club, Events and Corporate Video, Events at Work, Dominguez Marketing Communications, Red Mobile, Budget hotel in Makati, Lucio C. Tan Group of Companies, and Blog4Reviews.com.

goodluck to all the nominees! may you continue to inspire people around you through your creative talents that God has given you all..

Monday, July 13, 2009

The Hormone of Femininity

The Hormone of Femininity
What is the essence of being a woman?
is it a man?
Is it the success in her career?
Or is it what she bear & being a mother?

They would say, you would'nt complete womanhood
until you have your own brood
Is'nt it lovely to hear wen your child says
"Thanks mom for tying my lace."

Would anyone ponder
How a child wander
inside her womb
and all that hormones that succumb

Can you see how magical it is
How these tiny creature lives
9 months in her throne
with the support of thy mother's progesterone

Progesterone that prepares the lining of the uterus & support pregnancy
and helps mom's breast to produce milk for the baby
when that baby girl grows up
reproductive years makes it way on top

As that girl becomes a lady
She would ask about her changes in her body
Mom has to be ready
in explaining that she's no longer a baby

That During the reproductive years
hormones generated by the pituitary gland in the brain tears
which cause a new egg to mature
and comes out from its ovarian follicle every month in rapture

the reason why breasts becomes supple and tender,
feeling bloated and mood swings that's hard to bear
all these things come so natural
wonders of God so magical

How great it is that progesterone
can be a good topic alone
for mom and daughter bonding
the essence of a mother....so loving!

Comparison Between A Young Healthy Woman and An Old Woman in Accordance to Effects of Progesterone

After reading my previous posted topics we all learned that Progesterone plays a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and healthy reproductive system of women. Here are some linked videos showing the importance of progesterone:




Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Answers to Questions


1. The Reference Value of progesterone during follicular phase is 150 ng/dl.
2. The range of progesterone during luteal phase 300-1,200 ng/dl.
3. The normal progression value in the first trimester is 1,500-5,000 ng/dl.
4. The normal progression value in the second and third trimester is 8,000-20,000 ng/dl.
5. The range of progesterone in menopausal women is 10-22 ng/dl.
6-8. Elevated Progesterone Levels may indicate;
  • Ovulation
  • Luteneizing Tumors
  • Ovarian Cyst
9. Radio Immuno Assay (RIA)
10. Serum

11-15. An 18 year old girl went to the hospital and said to be having amenorrhea, as she was tested she was diagnosed to be having gonadal dysfunction. What would be the cause of girls symptoms? Does it have something to do with elevated or low progesterone level?

  • The girls amenorrhea was caused by gonadal dysfunction. Amenorrhea was associated with a low progesterone level.

Tuesday, June 16, 2009



1. What is the range of progesterone during follicular phase?
2. What is the range of progesterone during luteal phase?
3. What is the normal progression values in the first trimester?
4. What is the normal progression values in the second and third trimester?
5. What is the range of progesterone in menopausal women?
6-8. Give 3 causes of elevated progesterone level?
9. Is a quantitative analysis of plasma progesterone levels and provides reliable information about corpus luteum function in fertility studies and placental function in pregnancy.
10. The ideal specimen for the test in progesterone determination?

Case Study:

11-15. An 18 year old girl went to the hospital and said to be having amenorrhea, as she was tested she was diagnosed to be having gonadal dysfunction. What would be the cause of girls symptoms? Does it have something to do with elevated or low progesterone level? (explain)

Monday, June 1, 2009



Progesterone, an ovarian steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum, causes thickening and secretory growth of the endometrium in preparation for implantation of the fertilized ovum. Progesterone levels, therefore, peak during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. If implantation doesn’t occur, progesterone (and estrogen) levels drop sharply and menstruation begins about 2 days later.

During pregnancy, the placenta releases about 10 times the normal monthly amount of progesterone to maintain the pregnancy. Increased secretion begins toward the end of the first trimesterand continues until delivery. Progesterone prevents abortion by decreasing uterine contractions. Along with estrogen, progesterone helps prepare the breasts for lactation.

This radioimmunoassay is a quantitative analysis of plasma progesterone levels and provides reliable information about corpus luteum function in fertility studies and placental function in pregnancy. Serial determinations are recommended. Although plasma levels provide accurate information, a can also be monitored by measuring urine pregnanediol, a catabolite of progesterone. The ideal specimen for the test is heparinized plasma; non-icteric, non-hemolyzed, non-turbid serum.

The purpose of radioimmunoassay test for plasma is to assess corpus luteum function as part of infertility studies, to evaluate placental function during pregnancy and to aid in confirming ovulation; test results support basal body temperature readings.

You must explain the procedure to the patient before subjecting her to further testing. Note the date of last menstrual period/length of gestation.Do not register radioisotopes within 1 week before the test. It is important to check the patient’s history if she’s taking drugs that may interfere with test results, including progesterone and estrogen. Inform the patient that the test may be repeated at specific times coinciding with phases of her menstrual cycle or with each prenatal visit. Inform the patient that she need not restrict foods and fluids.

Obtain a venous blood sample. Serum is needed for the test. Remember that the test should include gender, day of last menstrual period, and length of gestation in women. Remember that urine levels may be done, but serum is preferred.Be aware that β-hCG may be ordered at the same time. Apply direct pressure to the venipuncture site until bleeding stops. If hematoma develops at the venipuncture site, apply warm compress.

Reference Values:

During menstruation, normal progesterone values are:

- follicular phase: <150>

- luteal phase: 300-1,200 ng/dl (SI, 10-40nmol/L)

During pregnancy, normal progression values are:

- First trimester: 1,500-5,000 ng/dl (SI, 50-160 nmol/L

- Second and third trimester: 8,000-20,000 ng/dl (SI, 250-650 nmol/L)

Normal values in menopausal women

- 10-22 ng/dl (SI, 0-2 nmol/L)

Elevated progesterone levels may indicate ovulation, luteneizing tumors, ovarian cysts that produce progesterone or adrenocortical hyperplasia and tumors that produce progesterone along with steroidal hormones.Low progesterone levels are associated with amenorrhea due to several causes (such as panhypopituitarism and gonadal dysfunction), eclampsia, threatened abortion and fetal death.


  • A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests 7th Edition By: Frances Fischbach
  • Prof. Guide to Diagnostic Tests
  • http://wikipedia.com

Friday, May 29, 2009


Hi, I'm Kristine Kretel, welcome to my blog.